### Prime factors, HCF, LCM and Euclid Algorithm

Conquering LCM & HCF/GCD for GCSE & IGCSE Maths
Feeling overwhelmed by Least Common Multiple and Highest Common Factor (HCF/GCD)? Worry no more! This comprehensive guide will make you a master of these essential GCSE and IGCSE math concepts.
We'll break down everything you need to know with clear explanations, step-by-step examples, and helpful tips - and above all, interactive programme to generate questions and check your answers. Whether you're struggling with prime factorization or want to ace those HCF/GCD questions, this tutorial has you covered.

#### Prime Numbers

Numbers that can only be divided by itself and 1 are called prime numbers.

E.g. 2,3,5,7,9,11,13,.........................

1 is not a prime number; 2 is the only number that is both prime and even.

#### Prime Factors

When the factors of a number is written in the form of prime factors, they are called prime factors.

E.g. 12 - 1,2,3,4,6 and 12 are factors of 12, but they are all not prime factors

However, when 12 is written in terms of 2X2X3, both 2 and 3 are called prime factors.

In order to find prime factors of a number, keep dividing it with prime numbers, starting with the smallest, until you end up with a prime number.

E.g.

240 :-2 = 120 ⇒ 120 :- 2 = 60 ⇒ 60 :- 2 = 30 ⇒ 30 :-2 = 15 ⇒ 15 :- 3 = 5
240 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5
240 = 24 X 3 X 5

Prime factors can be used to find HCF and LCM of two numbers.

#### HCF / GCD - Highest Common Factor / Greatest Common Divisor

1. Find the prime factors of both numbers first.
2. Then take the common prime factors out.
3. Multiply the lowest power of common prime factors; that gives HCF

E.g.1

Find the HCF of 150 and 120.
150 = 2 X 3 X 5 X 5 = 2 X 3 X 52
120 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 23 X 3 X 5
The product of lowest power of common factors = 2 X 3 X 5 = 30
So, HCF of 150 and 120 is 30.

E.g.2

Find the HCF of 75 and 120.
75 = 3 X 5 X 5 = 3 X 52
120 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 23 X 3 X 5
The product of lowest power of common factors = 3 X 5 = 15
So, HCF of 75 and 120 is 15.

#### HCF Calculator

Number 1: Number 2:

#### LCM - Lowest Common Multiple

1. Find the prime factors of both numbers first.
2. Then take the highest power of prime factors of both numbers.
3. Multiply the above prime factors together; that gives LCM

E.g.1

Find the LCM of 150 and 120.
150 = 2 X 3 X 5 X 5 = 2 X 3 X 52
120 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 23 X 3 X 5
The product of highest power of prime factors = 23 X 3 X 52 = 600
So, LCM of 150 and 120 is 600.

E.g.2

Find the LCM of 150 and 60.
150 = 2 X 3 X 5 X 5 = 2 X 3 X 52
60 = 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 22 X 3 X 5
The product of highest power of prime factors = 22 X 3 X 52 = 300
So, LCM of 150 and 60 is 300.

#### LCM Calculator

Number 1: Number 2:

#### Euclid's Algorithm

This programme uses the world-famous Euclid's Algorithm that was invented around 300 B.C., in order to find the HCF of two numbers. So, I take this opportunity to honour the intellectual giant for providing us with this great mathematical tool.

Suppose you want to find the HCF of a and b. Here are the steps of the simple algorithm:

1. Input the two numbers - a and b.
2. If a<b exchange a and b.
3. Divide a by b and get the the remainder r.
4. If r is not equal to zero, replace a by b and b by r, then repeat step 3.
5. If r = 0, then b is the HCF of a and b.

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