### Prime factors, HCF, LCM and Euclid Algorithm

**Conquering LCM & HCF/GCD for GCSE & IGCSE Maths **

Feeling overwhelmed by Least Common Multiple and Highest Common Factor (HCF/GCD)? Worry no more! This comprehensive guide will make you a master of these essential GCSE and IGCSE math concepts.

We'll break down everything you need to know with clear explanations, step-by-step examples, and helpful tips - and above all, interactive programme to generate questions and check your answers. Whether you're struggling with prime factorization or want to ace those HCF/GCD questions, this tutorial has you covered.

Get ready to boost your confidence and conquer your exams!

#### Prime Numbers

Numbers that can only be divided by itself and 1 are called prime numbers.

**E.g. 2,3,5,7,9,11,13,.........................**

1 is not a prime number; 2 is the only number that is both prime and even.

#### Prime Factors

When the factors of a number is written in the form of **prime factors**, they are called **prime factors.**

E.g. 12 - 1,2,3,4,6 and 12 are factors of 12, but they are all not prime factors

However, when 12 is written in terms of 2X2X3, both 2 and 3 are called prime factors.

In order to find prime factors of a number, keep dividing it with prime numbers, starting with the smallest, until
you end up with a prime number.

**E.g.**

240 :-2 = 120 ⇒ 120 :- 2 = 60 ⇒ 60 :- 2 = 30 ⇒ 30 :-2 = 15 ⇒ 15 :- 3 = 5

240 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5

240 = 2^{4} X 3 X 5

Prime factors can be used to find **HCF** and **LCM** of two numbers.

#### HCF / GCD - Highest Common Factor / Greatest Common Divisor

- Find the prime factors of both numbers first.
- Then take the common prime factors out.
- Multiply the lowest power of common prime factors; that gives HCF

**E.g.1**

Find the HCF of 150 and 120.

150 = 2 X 3 X 5 X 5 = 2 X 3 X 5^{2}

120 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 2^{3} X 3 X 5

The product of lowest power of common factors = 2 X 3 X 5 = 30

So, HCF of 150 and 120 is 30.

**E.g.2**

Find the HCF of 75 and 120.

75 = 3 X 5 X 5 = 3 X 5^{2}

120 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 2^{3} X 3 X 5

The product of lowest power of common factors = 3 X 5 = 15

So, HCF of 75 and 120 is 15.

#### HCF Calculator

Number 1:
Number 2:

#### LCM - Lowest Common Multiple

- Find the prime factors of both numbers first.
- Then take the highest power of prime factors of both numbers.
- Multiply the above prime factors together; that gives LCM

**E.g.1**

Find the LCM of 150 and 120.

150 = 2 X 3 X 5 X 5 = 2 X 3 X 5^{2}

120 = 2 X 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 2^{3} X 3 X 5

The product of highest power of prime factors = 2^{3} X 3 X 5^{2} = 600

So, LCM of 150 and 120 is 600.

**E.g.2**

Find the LCM of 150 and 60.

150 = 2 X 3 X 5 X 5 = 2 X 3 X 5^{2}

60 = 2 X 2 X 3 X 5 = 2^{2} X 3 X 5

The product of highest power of prime factors = 2^{2} X 3 X 5^{2} = 300

So, LCM of 150 and 60 is 300.

#### LCM Calculator

Number 1:
Number 2:

**Practice is the key to mastering maths; please visit this page, for more worksheets.**

#### Euclid's Algorithm

This programme uses the world-famous **Euclid's Algorithm** that was invented around 300
B.C., in order to find the HCF of two numbers. So, I take this opportunity to honour the intellectual giant for providing us with this great mathematical
tool.

Suppose you want to find the **HCF** of a and b. Here are the steps of the simple algorithm:

- Input the two numbers - a and b.
- If a<b exchange a and b.
- Divide a by b and get the the remainder r.
- If r is not equal to zero, replace a by b and b by r, then repeat step 3.
- If r = 0, then b is the
**HCF** of a and b.